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盒子
文章目录
  1. forkSystemServer
  2. nativeForkSystemServer
  3. ForkCommon
  4. handleSystemServerProcess
  5. applicationInit
  6. findStaticMain
  7. 项目

Android SystemServer启动(一)

Android init 启动

Android Linux Zygote启动

Android Java Zygote启动

Android通过Linux启动init进程,再通过init进程forkZygote进程。在Zygote中有一个重要的步骤就是启动system_server进程,并且创建SystemServer

下面我们来深入了解一下SystemServer的创建过程。

此次分析过程基于Android 10.0

forkSystemServer

ZygoteInit中会通过forkSystemServer来创建system_server进程。

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private static Runnable forkSystemServer(String abiList, String socketName,
ZygoteServer zygoteServer) {
long capabilities = posixCapabilitiesAsBits(
OsConstants.CAP_IPC_LOCK,
OsConstants.CAP_KILL,
OsConstants.CAP_NET_ADMIN,
OsConstants.CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE,
OsConstants.CAP_NET_BROADCAST,
OsConstants.CAP_NET_RAW,
OsConstants.CAP_SYS_MODULE,
OsConstants.CAP_SYS_NICE,
OsConstants.CAP_SYS_PTRACE,
OsConstants.CAP_SYS_TIME,
OsConstants.CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG,
OsConstants.CAP_WAKE_ALARM,
OsConstants.CAP_BLOCK_SUSPEND
);
/* Containers run without some capabilities, so drop any caps that are not available. */
StructCapUserHeader header = new StructCapUserHeader(
OsConstants._LINUX_CAPABILITY_VERSION_3, 0);
StructCapUserData[] data;
try {
data = Os.capget(header);
} catch (ErrnoException ex) {
throw new RuntimeException("Failed to capget()", ex);
}
capabilities &= ((long) data[0].effective) | (((long) data[1].effective) << 32);
// system_server 进程参数
String args[] = {
"--setuid=1000",
"--setgid=1000",
"--setgroups=1001,1002,1003,1004,1005,1006,1007,1008,1009,1010,1018,1021,1023,1024,1032,1065,3001,3002,3003,3006,3007,3009,3010",
"--capabilities=" + capabilities + "," + capabilities,
"--nice-name=system_server",
"--runtime-args",
"--target-sdk-version=" + VMRuntime.SDK_VERSION_CUR_DEVELOPMENT,
"com.android.server.SystemServer",
};
ZygoteConnection.Arguments parsedArgs = null;
int pid;
try {
// 解析参数
parsedArgs = new ZygoteConnection.Arguments(args);
ZygoteConnection.applyDebuggerSystemProperty(parsedArgs);
ZygoteConnection.applyInvokeWithSystemProperty(parsedArgs);
boolean profileSystemServer = SystemProperties.getBoolean(
"dalvik.vm.profilesystemserver", false);
if (profileSystemServer) {
parsedArgs.runtimeFlags |= Zygote.PROFILE_SYSTEM_SERVER;
}
// fork出system_server进程
pid = Zygote.forkSystemServer(
parsedArgs.uid, parsedArgs.gid,
parsedArgs.gids,
parsedArgs.runtimeFlags,
null,
parsedArgs.permittedCapabilities,
parsedArgs.effectiveCapabilities);
} catch (IllegalArgumentException ex) {
throw new RuntimeException(ex);
}
// system_server子进程
if (pid == 0) {
if (hasSecondZygote(abiList)) {
waitForSecondaryZygote(socketName);
}
// 关闭原有进程
zygoteServer.closeServerSocket();
// 操作system_server进程
return handleSystemServerProcess(parsedArgs);
}
return null;
}

在这里会准备fork的进程参数,从参数信息可以看出,system_server进程的uid=1000、gid=1000,进程名称为system_server,后续启动的SystemServer路径为com.android.server.SystemServer

zygote进程fork新进程之后会将原来的zygotesocket关闭,同时对于有两个zygote进程的情况,需要等待第2zygote创建完成。

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public static int forkSystemServer(int uid, int gid, int[] gids, int runtimeFlags,
int[][] rlimits, long permittedCapabilities, long effectiveCapabilities) {
VM_HOOKS.preFork();
// Resets nice priority for zygote process.
resetNicePriority();
int pid = nativeForkSystemServer(
uid, gid, gids, runtimeFlags, rlimits, permittedCapabilities, effectiveCapabilities);
// Enable tracing as soon as we enter the system_server.
if (pid == 0) {
Trace.setTracingEnabled(true, runtimeFlags);
}
VM_HOOKS.postForkCommon();
return pid;
}

nativeForkSystemServer最终会通过JNI映射到com_android_internal_os_Zygote.cpp中的com_android_internal_os_Zygote_nativeForkSystemServer方法.

nativeForkSystemServer

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static jint com_android_internal_os_Zygote_nativeForkSystemServer(
JNIEnv* env, jclass, uid_t uid, gid_t gid, jintArray gids,
jint runtime_flags, jobjectArray rlimits, jlong permitted_capabilities,
jlong effective_capabilities) {
std::vector<int> fds_to_close(MakeUsapPipeReadFDVector()),
fds_to_ignore(fds_to_close);
fds_to_close.push_back(gUsapPoolSocketFD);
if (gUsapPoolEventFD != -1) {
fds_to_close.push_back(gUsapPoolEventFD);
fds_to_ignore.push_back(gUsapPoolEventFD);
}
if (gSystemServerSocketFd != -1) {
fds_to_close.push_back(gSystemServerSocketFd);
fds_to_ignore.push_back(gSystemServerSocketFd);
}
// fork 子进程
pid_t pid = ForkCommon(env, true,
fds_to_close,
fds_to_ignore,
true);
if (pid == 0) {
// 处理子进程
SpecializeCommon(env, uid, gid, gids, runtime_flags, rlimits,
permitted_capabilities, effective_capabilities,
MOUNT_EXTERNAL_DEFAULT, nullptr, nullptr, true,
false, nullptr, nullptr, /* is_top_app= */ false,
/* pkg_data_info_list */ nullptr,
/* whitelisted_data_info_list */ nullptr, false, false);
} else if (pid > 0) {
gSystemServerPid = pid;
int status;
if (waitpid(pid, &status, WNOHANG) == pid) {
ALOGE("System server process %d has died. Restarting Zygote!", pid);
RuntimeAbort(env, __LINE__, "System server process has died. Restarting Zygote!");
}
if (UsePerAppMemcg()) {
if (!SetTaskProfiles(pid, std::vector<std::string>{"SystemMemoryProcess"})) {
ALOGE("couldn't add process %d into system memcg group", pid);
}
}
}
return pid;
}

在这里会通过ForkCommon来创建子进程

ForkCommon

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static pid_t ForkCommon(JNIEnv* env, bool is_system_server,
const std::vector<int>& fds_to_close,
const std::vector<int>& fds_to_ignore,
bool is_priority_fork) {
SetSignalHandlers();
auto fail_fn = std::bind(ZygoteFailure, env, is_system_server ? "system_server" : "zygote",
nullptr, _1);
BlockSignal(SIGCHLD, fail_fn);
__android_log_close();
AStatsSocket_close();
if (gOpenFdTable == nullptr) {
gOpenFdTable = FileDescriptorTable::Create(fds_to_ignore, fail_fn);
} else {
gOpenFdTable->Restat(fds_to_ignore, fail_fn);
}
android_fdsan_error_level fdsan_error_level = android_fdsan_get_error_level();
mallopt(M_PURGE, 0);
// fork子进程
pid_t pid = fork();
if (pid == 0) {
// 处理子进程逻辑
if (is_priority_fork) {
setpriority(PRIO_PROCESS, 0, PROCESS_PRIORITY_MAX);
} else {
setpriority(PRIO_PROCESS, 0, PROCESS_PRIORITY_MIN);
}
// The child process.
PAuthKeyChange(env);
PreApplicationInit();
// Clean up any descriptors which must be closed immediately
DetachDescriptors(env, fds_to_close, fail_fn);
// Invalidate the entries in the USAP table.
ClearUsapTable();
// Re-open all remaining open file descriptors so that they aren't shared
// with the zygote across a fork.
gOpenFdTable->ReopenOrDetach(fail_fn);
// Turn fdsan back on.
android_fdsan_set_error_level(fdsan_error_level);
// Reset the fd to the unsolicited zygote socket
gSystemServerSocketFd = -1;
} else {
ALOGD("Forked child process %d", pid);
}
// We blocked SIGCHLD prior to a fork, we unblock it here.
UnblockSignal(SIGCHLD, fail_fn);
return pid;
}

fork创建进程采用的是copy on write方法,这个是Linux创建进程的标准方式,会有两次返回值。

返回0时代表子进程,返回值大于0为父进程。

进程创建完毕之后,会返回Java层,并进入handleSystemServerProcess来处理system_server进程逻辑。

handleSystemServerProcess

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private static Runnable handleSystemServerProcess(ZygoteConnection.Arguments parsedArgs) {
Os.umask(S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO);
// 设置进程名称
if (parsedArgs.niceName != null) {
Process.setArgV0(parsedArgs.niceName);
}
final String systemServerClasspath = Os.getenv("SYSTEMSERVERCLASSPATH");
if (systemServerClasspath != null) {
performSystemServerDexOpt(systemServerClasspath);
boolean profileSystemServer = SystemProperties.getBoolean(
"dalvik.vm.profilesystemserver", false);
if (profileSystemServer && (Build.IS_USERDEBUG || Build.IS_ENG)) {
try {
prepareSystemServerProfile(systemServerClasspath);
} catch (Exception e) {
Log.wtf(TAG, "Failed to set up system server profile", e);
}
}
}
if (parsedArgs.invokeWith != null) {
String[] args = parsedArgs.remainingArgs;
if (systemServerClasspath != null) {
String[] amendedArgs = new String[args.length + 2];
amendedArgs[0] = "-cp";
amendedArgs[1] = systemServerClasspath;
System.arraycopy(args, 0, amendedArgs, 2, args.length);
args = amendedArgs;
}
// 启动应用进程
WrapperInit.execApplication(parsedArgs.invokeWith,
parsedArgs.niceName, parsedArgs.targetSdkVersion,
VMRuntime.getCurrentInstructionSet(), null, args);
throw new IllegalStateException("Unexpected return from WrapperInit.execApplication");
} else {
ClassLoader cl = null;
if (systemServerClasspath != null) {
// 创建ClassLoader
cl = createPathClassLoader(systemServerClasspath, parsedArgs.targetSdkVersion);
Thread.currentThread().setContextClassLoader(cl);
}
return ZygoteInit.zygoteInit(parsedArgs.targetSdkVersion, parsedArgs.remainingArgs, cl);
}
}

设置进程名称system_server,并通过zygoteInit进入。

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public static final Runnable zygoteInit(int targetSdkVersion, String[] argv, ClassLoader classLoader) {
if (RuntimeInit.DEBUG) {
Slog.d(RuntimeInit.TAG, "RuntimeInit: Starting application from zygote");
}
Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "ZygoteInit");
RuntimeInit.redirectLogStreams();
RuntimeInit.commonInit();
ZygoteInit.nativeZygoteInit();
return RuntimeInit.applicationInit(targetSdkVersion, argv, classLoader);
}

在这里会通过调用RuntimeInit.commonInit来初始化一些公用的东西。并通过nativeZygoteInit调用对于映射的Linux方法,即app_main.cpp中的onZygoteInit方法来初始化zygote

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virtual void onZygoteInit() {
sp<ProcessState> proc = ProcessState::self();
proc->startThreadPool(); //启动新binder线程
}

ProcessState::self()是单例模式,主要工作是调用open()打开/dev/binder驱动设备,再利用mmap()映射内核的地址空间,将Binder驱动的fd赋值ProcessState对象中的变量mDriverFD,用于交互操作。startThreadPool()是创建一个新的binder线程,不断进行talkWithDriver()

applicationInit

继续回到Java,调用applicationInit方法:

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protected static Runnable applicationInit(int targetSdkVersion, String[] argv,
ClassLoader classLoader) {
nativeSetExitWithoutCleanup(true);
VMRuntime.getRuntime().setTargetHeapUtilization(0.75f);
VMRuntime.getRuntime().setTargetSdkVersion(targetSdkVersion);
// 解析参数
final Arguments args = new Arguments(argv);
Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
return findStaticMain(args.startClass, args.startArgs, classLoader);
}

通过之前的参数列表信息,可以知道这里的startclass就是com.android.server.SystemServer

findStaticMain

最后进入findStaticMain方法来创建SystemServer

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protected static Runnable findStaticMain(String className, String[] argv,
ClassLoader classLoader) {
Class<?> cl;
try {
cl = Class.forName(className, true, classLoader);
} catch (ClassNotFoundException ex) {
throw new RuntimeException(
"Missing class when invoking static main " + className,
ex);
}
Method m;
try {
m = cl.getMethod("main", new Class[] { String[].class });
} catch (NoSuchMethodException ex) {
throw new RuntimeException(
"Missing static main on " + className, ex);
} catch (SecurityException ex) {
throw new RuntimeException(
"Problem getting static main on " + className, ex);
}
int modifiers = m.getModifiers();
if (! (Modifier.isStatic(modifiers) && Modifier.isPublic(modifiers))) {
throw new RuntimeException(
"Main method is not public and static on " + className);
}
return new MethodAndArgsCaller(m, argv);
}

该方法也很简单,通过Java反射来获取对应的ClassMethod,这里对应的就是SystemServermain方法。

最后返回MethodAndArgsCaller

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static class MethodAndArgsCaller implements Runnable {
/** method to call */
private final Method mMethod;
/** argument array */
private final String[] mArgs;
public MethodAndArgsCaller(Method method, String[] args) {
mMethod = method;
mArgs = args;
}
public void run() {
try {
mMethod.invoke(null, new Object[] { mArgs });
} catch (IllegalAccessException ex) {
throw new RuntimeException(ex);
} catch (InvocationTargetException ex) {
Throwable cause = ex.getCause();
if (cause instanceof RuntimeException) {
throw (RuntimeException) cause;
} else if (cause instanceof Error) {
throw (Error) cause;
}
throw new RuntimeException(ex);
}
}
}

所以如果调用run方法就会通过反射来执行SystemServer中的main方法。

而这个Runnable最终在ZygoteInitmain方法中通过forkSystemServer创建并返回。

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if (startSystemServer) {
Runnable r = forkSystemServer(abiList, socketName, zygoteServer);
// {@code r == null} in the parent (zygote) process, and {@code r != null} in the
// child (system_server) process.
if (r != null) {
r.run();
return;
}
}

创建并返回Runnable之后,调用r.run()来执行SystemServermain方法。

最终进入SystemServer的流程。

现在我们已经找到了进入SystemServer的入口,后续继续分析SystemServer的作用与内部执行的逻辑。

项目

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